Programa de Neuroanatomí­a

Goals: Book neuroanatomy

  • Configure the physiological and anatomical organization of the nervous activity, defining and recognizing their structure and function.
  • Manage language and the basics of brain activity to classify and understand the functional organization of the nervous system models and their expressions in the field of behavior.
  • Analyze immediate applications of the subject content, and articulate them with the following matters in understanding the organization of behavior in their various contexts.

Unit N º 1 – Organization of the Nervous System: general

Specific Objectives:

  • Recognize the main structures of the central and peripheral nervous system in its three-dimensional location.
  • Understanding the systemic organization of the nervous structures, as the main laws of functional organization.


1.1 Terminology used in neuroanatomy
1.1.1 Axes Plans and guidance.
1.2 Definition, function and divisions of the Nervous System
1.3 Organization macroscopic
SN SN 1.3.1 Central and Peripheral.
1.3.2 Core Structures: spinal cord, spinal nerves, brainstem, cranial nerves, cerebellum, diencephalon white matter, basal ganglia, limbic system and cerebral cortex.
1.3.3 autonomic nervous system (ANS): sympathetic and parasympathetic.
1.3.4 Meninges, CSF and ventricular system: structure and function.

Unit N ° 2 – Cell biology of the nervous system

Specific Objectives:

  • Recognize the main microscopic structures of the central nervous system.
  • Understand the role and importance of each cell type.

2.1 The Cell
2.2 Organization microscopic
2.2.1 Neuron: types and classifications.
2.2.2 Neuroglia: types and functions.
Axonal Myelination 2.3. Gray matter and white matter.
2.4 Blood-brain barrier: Concept, formation and characteristics.

Unit N º 3 – Development and plasticity

Specific Objectives:

  • Understanding the development of the nervous system throughout the life cycle.
  • Characterize the different developmental stages of the SN. and relate these stages in organizing different purposes adaptive behaviors.
  • Differentiate ontogenetic development patterns and analyze the organization of the different structures of the SN.

3.1 Concept of Ontogeny and Phylogeny
3.2 Phases CNS development.
3.2.1 Formation of the neural tube and its evolution: centralization, encephalization, differentiation and folding.
3.2.2 Cell Development.
3.2.3 Growth Rate.
3.3 The physiological aging process.

Unit N º 4 – Electrical properties of neurons

Specific Objectives:

  • Analyze excitation principles and ionic conduction in neural processing of information.
  • Conceptualize most important electrochemical mechanisms, and relate the principles of psychopharmacology.

4.1 The structure of the neuron
4.1.1 Functional Areas of the neuron.
4.1.2 Types axon.
4.2 Electrical properties of the neuron.
4.2.1 The Cell Membrane.
4.2.2 resting potential.
Mechanisms 4.2.3 ion excitation and inhibition.
4.2.4 excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.
4.2.5 Temporal and spatial summation.
4.2.6 Action Potential.
4.2.7 Absolute and Relative Refractory Period.
4.2.8 Propagation, driving and transmitting information in nerve cells.
4.2.9 saltatory conduction: conduction velocity.

Unit N º 5 – Transmission chemistry in the SN

Specific Objectives:

  • Analyze and recognize the steps in the chemical transmission of synapses.
  • Conceptualize early hormonal and pharmacological action.
  • Understand the fundamentals of drug addiction and substance use for therapeutic purposes.

5.1 The synapse.
5.1.1 Concept.
5.1.2 Anatomy.
5.1.3 Features.
5.1.4 Types.
5.1.5 Convergence and Divergence.
5.1.6 Synaptic plasticity, habituation and learning.
5.2 Type of Communication in living organisms.
Neurotransmitter 5.3.
5.3.1 Concept.
5.3.2 Features.
5.3.3 Classification.
5.3.4 Mechanism of action on receptors in the nervous system.
5.4 Mechanisms of hormonal action in chemical communication.
5.4.1 Classification hormonal.
Hormone Action 5.4.2.
5.4.3 Regulation of hormone secretion.
5.5 Pituitary: neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis.
5.6 Hypothalamus.
5.6.1 supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.
5.6.2 Systems arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin.
5.7 Differences between hormonal and nerve signal signal.

Unit N º 6 – Organization of sensitivity and Special Senses

Specific Objectives:

  • Identify and classify the different structures involved in the mechanisms of reception of stimuli, and the development of movements and actions.
  • Compare receptive modalities and relate the higher structures of SN.

6.1 Biological basis for sensory processing.
6.1.1 Types of energy.
6.1.2 Receivers.
6.1.3 Coding and Transduction.
6.1.4 Transmission.
6.1.5 Concept of Sensitive Unit.
6.2 Types of sensitivity.
Teleceptiva 6.2.1.
Exteroceptive 6.2.2.
Interoceptive 6.2.3.
Proprioceptive 6.2.4.
6.3 Anatomical structures of feeling
6.3.1 Receivers: types and functions.
6.3.2 Bone: sensory pathways.
6.3.3 Brainstem cranial sensory.
6.3.4 Diencephalon: thalamus Nuclear Organization and its relation to the cortex. Connections.
6.3.5 Cerebral Cortex: cytoarchitecture and organization of sensory and sensory functions.
6.4 senses.
6.4.1 The somatosensory system: Types of skin sensitivity and related nerve terminals. Touch, pain, cold, heat, etc..
6.4.2 The vision: main theories of color and its neurophysiological basis. The eye and the retina. The information processing. The critical period of visual and development ocular dominance. Anatomy of the neural pathways of vision.
6.4.3 Hearing: The sound waves. Structure of the outer ear, middle and inner. Neural pathways for hearing.
6.4.4 Balance: Anatomy and physiology of the vestibular system. Vestibular tracts brain. The vestibulo ocular.
6.4.5 The smell and taste: Relevance of the sense of smell in humans. Neuroanatomy and physiology of the nasal epithelium and the olfactory bulbs. Theories about the mechanism of olfaction. The sense of taste the different flavors and taste buds. Electrochemical coding of taste information.
6.5 Coding of intensity sensation.
6.6 Adaptation.

Unit N ° 7 – Organization of Movements

Specific Objectives:

  • Analyze and integrate subsystems producers of motion and action.
  • Recognize and characterize changes characteristic of sensory perception and movement.

7.1 Anatomy and physiology of motor control.
7.1.1 The neuromuscular junction: structure, the plate potential and toxin action. Myasthenia Gravis.
7.1.2 The spinal cord: morphological Organization: white and gray. Afferents and efferents. Spinal nerves. Ascending and descending pathways main location and function. Reflections: monosynaptic and polysynaptic. Motion control and sensory feedback of muscles and joints.
7.1.3 The brainstem: Location and specific motor function of cranial nerves. Properties of the main beams down and bottom. Location and function of relevant nuclei.
7.1.4 Cerebellum: Phylogenetic and functional divisions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellar cortex. The afferent and efferent connections of the cerebellum. Communication with the cerebellar cortex. Non-motor functions of the cerebellum. Cerebellar disorders: ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, and hypotonia.
7.1.5 subcortical structures: the striatum: caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus and subthalamus. Intrinsic connections and main afferent / efferent. Role of voluntary motor regulation. Striatal pathology: Parkinson’s disease.
7.1.6 Cerebral Cortex: Organization cytoarchitecture and motor functions
7.2 Physiology of movements.
7.3 Planning, Modulation and Implementation.

Unit N º 8 – cortex and higher mental functions

Specific Objectives:

  • Configure nerve activity as organizing integrated systems.
  • Conceptualize learning as a tool organizer brain function and mental activity.
  • Recognize different levels of expression and organization of major cognitive functions.

8.1 The cerebral hemispheres.
8.1.1 Principal fissures and lobes of the neocortex.
8.1.2 sulci and gyri.
8.2 cytoarchitecture of the neocortex.
8.2.1 Features of the cerebral cortex.
8.2.2 Layers of the Cerebral Cortex.
8.2.3 Classification of Broca.
Í 8.2.4 Areas Association and Projection.
8.2.5 Interconnections.
8.3 Lateralization of brain functions and asymmetries.
Limbic System 8.4: relationship with the emotional and memory.
8.5 Learning and Intelligence.
8.6 Warning Systems cortical and sleep-wake process.
8.7 Language.
8.7.1 cortical circuits.
8.7.2 Neural bases of language disorders.

Methodology and Teaching Strategies:

Weekly lectures will be developed using projection and audiovisual media. Classes will be participatory in the structuring of knowledge, and will require the prior reading of relevant bibliographic material.

It is planned to develop the analytical program as the sequence of its units and the selected bibliography. The student must complete 80% attendance.

In conducting practical activities, will undertake the following:

To be confirmed …

Rating:

Applying such a rubric Rubric .

Textbooks:

1. Arthur Guyton (1994) Anatomy and physiology of the SN. Edit. Pan.

2. Richard Snell (1990) Clinical Neuroanatomy. Edit. Interamericana.

Bibliography Ampliatoria:

3. Afifi, AK and Bergman, RA (1999) Functional neuroanatomy. Mexico: McGraw-Hill.

4. Bear, MF, Connors, BW and Paradiso MA (1998) Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Barcelona: Masson-Williams & Wilkins.

5. Bloom, FE and Lazerson, A. (1988) Brain, Mind and Behavior. New York: WH Freeman & Co.

6. Bradford, HF (1986) Fundamentals of Neurochemistry. Barcelona: Labor.

7. Bunge, M. (1985) The mind-brain problem. A psychobiological approach. Madrid: Tecnos.

8. Carlson, NR (1999) Physiology of Behavior. Barcelona: Ariel Psychology.

9. Carlson, NR (1986) Foundations of Physiological Psychology. Mexico: Prentice Hall.

10. Carpenter Malcolm (1990)? Neuroanatomy Human? Edit. Polity Press.

11. Carpenter, R. (1998) The New Map of the Brain. Barcelona: Integral

12. MC Diamond, AB Scheibel and LM Elson (1996) The Human Brain: Workbook. Barcelona: Ariel

13. Frazer, A., Molinoff, P. and Winokur, A. (1996) Biological basis of normal and abnormal function of the brain. Barcelona: Espaxis

14. Gazzaniga, MS (1985) The Social Brain. Madrid: Alianza Editorial

15. Greenfield, SA (1997) The human brain. New York: BasicBooks, HarperCollins Publishers.

16. Kandel ER & Schwartz JH (1989)? Principles of Neural Science? Elsevier North Holland NY.

17. Kandel, ER, Schwartz, JH and Jessel, TM (1997) Neuroscience and Behavior. Madrid: Prentice-Hall

18. Kiernan, JA (2000) The human nervous system. Mexico: McGraw-Hill.

19. Bryan Kolb & Ian Q. Wischaw (1986) “Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology” Edit. Labor SA Madrid.

20. LeVay, S. (1993) The Sexual Brain. Madrid: Alianza Editorial

21. Martin, JH (1998) Neuroanatomy. Madrid: Prentice-Hall.

22. Mackenna, BR and Callander R. (1993) Physiology Illustrated. London: Churchill Livingstone / Alhambra

23. Mias Carlos D., (1995)? Relations between nerve activity and organization of mental activity. Review of Explanatory models? Edit. National University of Cordoba.

24. Nauta, WHJ and Feirtag, M. (1987) Fundamentals of Neuroanatomy. Barcelona: Labor

25. Netter, FH (1989) Nervous System: Anatomy and Physiology. Volumes 1 and 2. Barcelona: Salvat

26. Pinel, JPJ (2000) Biopsychology. Masrid: Prentice Hall.

27. Purves, D., Augustine, GJ, Fitzpatrick, D., Katz, LC, LaMantia, A.-S. and McNamara, J. (2001) Invitation to Neuroscience. Buenos Aires: Panamericana

28. M. Rosenzweig & Leiman A. (1992) Physiological Psychology? Mac Graw Hill Edition.

29. Segovia, S. and Guillamón, A. (1996) Developmental Psychobiology. Barcelona: Ariel Psychology

30. Shepherd, GM (1990) Neurobiology. Barcelona: Labor.

31. Springer, SP and Deutsch, G. (1994) Left Brain, Right Brain. Barcelona: Gedisa

32. Thompson, RF (1993) The Brain. A Neuroscience Primer. New York: WH Freeman & Co.

33. Warwick Cohen, C. (1986) brain functions. Barcelona: Ariel Psychology.

34. Zeki, S. (1995) A Vision of the Brain. Barcelona: Ariel Neuroscience

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3 Respuestas

  1. exelente .. quisiera algo de neuroimagen por fa..

  2. ramon dice:

    muy bueno! .. necesito informacion sobre el accidente vascular cerebral y diagnostico radiologico. de antemano se lo agradezco grax

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